DEDICATED TO THE URHOBO PEOPLE OF
Perkins Foss, Ph. D.
A Male Aggression Dance (iphri)
This photograph depicts a danced performance for a statue for male aggression (iphri) held by the family of Etuke Odjesa, Ogberaka Quarter Edjekota. In the nineteenth century, many Urhobo village groups constantly struggled over land ownership. Iphri were carried at the forefront of attacking. In subsequent generations, these struggles were commemorated in mock battles, with neighboring families assuming the roles of aggressor and defender. (Photograph by Perkins Foss, 1972)