Urhobo Historical Society

OIL SPILLAGE
IN NIGERIA'S NIGER DELTA


INTEGRATED GRASS ROOT POST-IMPACT ASSESSMENT
OF ACUTE DAMAGING EFFECTS
OF CONTINUOUS OIL SPILLS IN THE NIGER DELTA
JANUARY 1998 - JANUARY 2000
 
 

PSYCHO-MORPHOLOGICAL & EMPIRICAL OVERVIEW


PRIMARY AUTHORS/RESEARCHERS:

DR. E. A. AKPOFURE

CHIEF M. L. EFERE

DR. PROSPER AYAWEI


3.0  METHODOLOGY


A work of this magnitude is not possible to be limited to singular method of investigation and analysis. The basic methods used were psycho-morphological and empirical in approach.
 
 

3.1. PSYCHO-MORPHOLICAL APPROACH

Under the above approach, we used an interviewer to an interviewee approach and answer method, (other time making group oral interviews) discussions and also abstracting facts from already existing material to authenticate our arguments (premises) reference to an acceptable conclusion.

One of our major limitation of this project was the experiences of our psycho-morphological team, having a gross response of reluctance from especially the men folk to express their state of mind and their stand points over issues raised either because of fear of being quoted.

The first procedure of inquiry in this particular report is the method called the generic psycho-morphological deca parameter used to identify the victim's temperamental behavioural blends towards the evidently climaxing psycho-genic and visceregenic needs, act and goal conflicts.

See figure 1 for graphic explanations.

Seconded by the primary psycho-morphological personality conflicts analysis method, thirdly the generic allterational psycho-morphological deca parameter analysis method, fourthly the sectarius psycho-morphological parameter analysis method. Fifthly the triangular combustion reality analysis method. Sixthly the triangular local residence crises investigation method and lastly the empirical analytical method. Using gravimetric analysis unit for the soil test and fathoming the quality of crude on water through the testing of the dissolved oxygen, carbon dioxide level, pH etc.
 
 

PERSONALITY VULNERABILITY ANALYSIS
FOR CONSULTANTS OBSERVATION AND INTERVIEWER(S) MAPPING

FOCUS: COUNTRY_______________ STATE_____________ TRIBE____________

COMMUNITY_______________ FAMILY_________ INDIVIDUAL________________

ADDRESS ____________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
 

Please tick on each line the term which best applies _____________________
 
 

3.2 Methdology 1

1.Purpose_______________________________________________________________________________________________
   fullness Aimless                  vacillating in    average      self-directed    strives to realize well-            Do not know
               without direction    purpose          achiever(s)  achiever(s)     formed purposes always
 

2.Initiative_____________________________________________________________________________________________
   Ability             Requires            Succeeds if       average             shows good      actively reactive  Do not  know

Constant
Oversight
always directed occasional initiative initiative

3.Industry______________________________________________________________________________________
                         Needs constant Needs occasional  Performs        Goes beyond   Seeks additional    Do not

Prodding prodding assigned tasks  what Required work    know

4.Moral_______________________________________________________________________________________________
  life                    Very Immoral  Small evidence of   Averagely     Shows qualitative  Shows high     Do not

 moral growth     moral moral life    integrity   know

5.Influence_____________________________________________________________________________________________
   on others         Detrimental        Passive, no pos-  Varying         Consistently     Unusually whole  Do not

  influence itive influence      influence good influence some influence   know

6.Acceptance____________________________________________________________________________________________
  By others         Avoided by       Just tolerated    Liked by            Well-liked by   Sought after       Do not

Others by others others others by others know

7.Respons-_____________________________________________________________________________________________
   bility                Irresponsible     Shows some     Usually reliable  Conscientiously Capable of much  Do not
dependability reliable responsibility     know

8.Leadership____________________________________________________________________________________________
   Quality             Parasitic          Tries, but           Occasional        Good in          Inspiring and          Do not
prone usually fails Leadership influencing motivating     know

9.Emotional____________________________________________________________________________________________
   qualities           Too                    Excitable         Usually well-     Consistently     Unusually stable    Do not
emotional balanced  well-balanced  and unruffled    know

10.Personal/____________________________________________________________________________________________
    Corporate      Unattractive/    Not repulsive but  Average in      Attractively       Excellently             Do not
   Appearance  careless unco-ordinated   appearance  neat attractive       know

 

PRIMARY PSYCHO-MORPHOLOGICAL PERSONALITY CONFLICTS ANALYSIS

 FOCUS: COUNTRY_______________ STATE_____________ TRIBE____________
 

COMMUNITY_______________ FAMILY_______ INDIVIDUAL________________
 

 ADDRESS ____________________________________________________________

 _____________________________________________________________________
 

 Please tick on each line the term which best applies _____________________
 
 

3.3 Methodology 2






1.Positively_____________________________________________________________________________________
   Endomorphic/      Lively                     Oratoral               Sympathetic          Friendly                Do not  know
  Viscerotonic

2.Negatively_____________________________________________________________________________________
   Endomorphic/      Boastful                 Unstable               Exaggerates          Over-emotional      Do not  know
  Viscerotonic

 

3.Positively_____________________________________________________________________________________
  Mesomorphic/       Successful             Result oriented      Visionary              Hard working         Do not  know
  Somatonic

 

4.Negative_____________________________________________________________________________________
   Mosomorphic/      Domineering         Cruel                     Self sufficient         Unmerciful              Do not  know
   Somatonic

 

5.Positively_____________________________________________________________________________________
 Ambimorphic         Perfection prone   Self - sacrificing     Gifted                     Analytical               Do not  know
Hybritonic

6.Negatively____________________________________________________________________________________
   Ambimorphic/      Easily Criticize(s)  Easily complain(s)  Easily condemn(s)   Easily curse(s)      Do not  know
  Hybritonic

 

7.Posively___________________________________________________________________________________________
    Extomorphic        Easy going             Dependable          Diplomatic            Objective                Do not  know
  Cerebrotonic

 

8.Negatively____________________________________________________________________________________
   Ectomorphic/       Selfish and Stingy      Self protective   Avoids risk              Always                Do not  know
   Cerebrotonic   bearing   procrastinating

FOR CONSULTANTS AND INTERVIEWERS ONLY






 Please add any further comments you wish about the concerns, morality, cooperativeness, tactfulness, good jugdement, honesty, acceptability, accessibility, industry, emotional stability, integrity, personality and character. ..

 ..
 
 
 

Date:. Signature:.. Full Name:. Time:..
 

Address:
 
 

GENERIC ALLETERATIONAL PSYCHO-MORPHOLOGICAL DECA PARAMETER






 FOCUS: COUNTRY_______________ STATE_____________ TRIBE____________
 

COMMUNITY_______________ FAMILY_________ INDIVIDUAL_______________

 ADDRESS ____________________________________________________________

 _____________________________________________________________________
 

 Please tick on each line the term which best applies _____________________
 
 

3.4 Methodology 3



 
 
 
 
 
EXTRAVAGANT MALADMINISTRATIVE
EXHILARATIVE MAXIMIZING
EMPATHETIC MANUFACTURING
ELOQUENT MAGISTERIAL
ENTHUSIASTIC MALADJUSTIVE
ECTATIC MALEVOLENT
EXUBERANT MERCHANDISING
EGOCENTRIC MANIPULATING
EUPHORIC MALEDICTIVE
EXCULPATIVE MALFACTORING
ALTRUISTIC ENDURING
ANALYSTIC  EPISTOLARIC
ACADEMIC ELUCIDATING
ARTISTIC ENUMERATING
AESTHETIC EUPHEMISTIC
AFFECTIONATE EQUIPOISE
ARGUEMENTATIVE  EXHORTIVE
ACIDULOUS  EXCULPATIVE
ALIENATIVE ELABORATE
AMBIDEXTROUS EXPATIATIVE

 
 

SECTARIOUS PSYCHO-MORPHOLOGICAL PARAMETER






FOCUS: COUNTRY_______________ STATE_____________ TRIBE____________
 

COMMUNITY_______________ FAMILY_________ INDIVIDUAL________________
 

 ADDRESS ____________________________________________________________

 _____________________________________________________________________
 

 Please tick each word which best applies
 
 

3.5 Methodology 4






Fig. 1
 
Enthusiatic Extravagant
Exhilarative Exaggerates
Empathetic Egoistic
Eloquent Excessively Exuberant
Euphoric Exculpative

Fig. 2
 
Manly Machismoistic
Manufacturing  Manipulative
Maximising Malevolent
Merchandising Madelictive
Magisterial  Malfactoring

 

Fig. 3
 
 
Enduring Emotionally dull
Epistolaric Evasive
Enumerating Excessively
Bluciclating Excusive
Euphemistic Excessively Elementary

 

Fig. 4
 
 
Altruistic Argumentative
Anthistic Acidulous
Analytic Alienative
Acceedemic  Antagonistic
Aesthetic Acrimonious
Ambidertronus  Abhorent 
Affectionate Acerbic

 
 
 

TRIANGULAR COMBUSTION REALITY ANALYSIS METHOD






FOCUS: COUNTRY_______________ STATE_____________ TRIBE____________
 

COMMUNITY_______________ FAMILY_________ INDIVIDUAL________________
 

 ADDRESS ____________________________________________________________

 _____________________________________________________________________
 

 Please tick each word which best applies
 
 

3.6 Methodology 5






FIG 1
 
 

                                                 AIR
 
 

COMBUSTIBLE REALITY ANALYSIS METHOD






 FIG. 2
 
 

TRIANGULAR  LOCAL RESIDENCE CRISES INVESTIGATION METHOD






FOCUS: COUNTRY_______________ STATE_____________ TRIBE____________
 

COMMUNITY_______________ FAMILY_________ INDIVIDUAL________________
 

ADDRESS ____________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
 
 

3.7 Methodology 6







 FIG. 3
 
 

PSYCHO-SOCIO-ECONOMIC INTEGRITY/ INVESTIGATION METHODOLOGY
 
 

EMPIRICAL ANALYTICAL METHOD
Water and Soil Test Method








FOCUS: COUNTRY_______________ STATE_____________ TRIBE____________
 

COMMUNITY_______________ FAMILY_________ INDIVIDUAL________________
 

 ADDRESS ____________________________________________________________

 _____________________________________________________________________
 
 

3.8 Methodology 7






Water Test

 General Bio-Physico- Chemical Parameters
 

1. Dissolved oxygen

 2. Carbon dioxide level

 3. pH

Only on Mobil offshore spill at Akwa Ibom State, the spill source was determined and has the following key approximate physical properties (obtained at water surface and therefore could vary).

 The results on viscosity, density, surface tension, cohesion force , adhesive force and viscosity of oil/water ratio shows the fast spreading rate of the crude oil once discharged into the aquatic environment.

 Refer to empirical data page for details.
 

Soil Test (ELF Spill)

This is a measurement of the amount of crude oil at the top and depth of 30cm

 at the various points coded A - F.
 

 Measurement is in mg/g.
 

 A - C Amount of crude oil in 30cm depth is more than that of the top soil
 

 This infers that crude has sunk into the soil having a long term devastating effect on vegetation and the biodiversity.
 

D - F Amount of crude oil at top soil is more than that of 30cm depth.
 

 This infers that crude oil deposits on the surface was more than that of the depth from the laboratory analysis.
 
 

SOIL TEST

3.9 GRAVIMETRIC METHOD


 

The method used was gravimetric analysis using tetrachloromethane (CCL4) as the solvent.
 
 

HEAT
 
 

 3 Hours continues refluxing (Suxlet extraction)







3.10 ASSORTED RESULT: SEE THE NATURAL AND NUTURED TEMP. REACTION BELOW:

 3.11 THE PSYCHO-MORPHOLOGICAL PHOBIC AND ANXIETY DISORDERS
 

We undertook to find out the following through interviews and observations:

1. Agoraphobic tendencies percentage in youths , women and men.

 Refer to table 4.1.2 for detailed result.

 2. Post traumatic stress disorder level in the youths, women and men.

 Refer to table 4.1.3 for results.

3. Obsessive - Compulsive stress disorder level in the youths, women and men.

 Refer to table 4.1.4
 

 4. Somato - form stress disorders level in the youths, women and men.

 Refer to table 4.1.5
 

 5. Affective stress disorder level in the youths, women and men.

 Refer to table 4.1.6.
 
 

3.12 JUSTIFICATION OF RESULT OF
PYSCHO-MORPHOLOGICAL METHODOLOGY






In the psycho-morphological phobic and anxiety disorder analysis - we noticed that the youth and women scored highest psychological imbalances and disorder - likely because of the more impoverishness, decrescent psycho- neuro - immunological and morphological tendencies.
 

 EMPERICAL ANALYSIS
 
 

3.13 WATER TEST

 Samples of water were collected from (6) six places respectively in three occasions of (14) fourteen days interval. The bio-physio chemical parameters were:

 1. Dissolved oxygen

 2. Carbon dioxide level

 3. PH
 

For further details refer to the page of empirical analysis.
 
 

3.14 SOIL TEST






To determine the quantity of crude oil (petroleum) in the soil, we used the gravimetric analysis method in every given sample using Benzene as the solvent.

The soil samples were collected in six places at both top soil level and 30cm depth at various points coded A - F in ELF Spill while in Mobil samples were collected in six places too both at 25cm depth and top level coded to be A - F as well.

 Measurement is in mg/g.
 
 

3.15 JUSTIFICATION OF TOP AND 30CM SOIL TEST (ELF SPILL)






For details refer to the empirical analysis page.

 In result A - top soil is 67 mg/p and at 30cm dept = 68mg/g

 Inferring that the amount of crude at 30cm is greater than the top level.

 B Amount at 30cm is more than top soil.

 C Amount at 30cm is more than top soil.

 Infers that from A - C the crude oil that sunk into the soil is more than that on the top soil.

 D Amount at top more than 30cm depth

 E Amount at top more than 30cm depth

 F Amount at top more than 30cm depth

 Infers that the amount of crude oil at the spill location is more on the top because of several quantity of water collection on the ground surface.

 As for the water test it was taken to the a laboratory and the results are displayed on the empirical pages.
 
 

Proceed to ASSORTED PHOBIC AND ANXIETY DISORDERS


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